Of the more than 30 million Americans who have kidney disease, most don’t even know they have it, according to the National Kidney Foundation. Often, no symptoms of kidney disease are apparent until the disease has progressed. National Kidney Month this March is an opportunity to shed light on the damage opioid use can do to kidneys so that people can get treatment as early as possible before kidney damage progresses to a dangerous point.
Learn More: Opioid Side Effects and Risks
What Do Kidneys Do?
Most people have two kidneys, which are organs that filter waste out of 200 liters of your blood per day, including removing drugs from your body. They release hormones that regulate blood pressure and produce a form of vitamin D that promotes bone health. Additionally, they regulate the body’s:
- Salt content
- Potassium content
- Acid content
- Production of red blood cells
How Opioid Use Can Harm Your Kidneys
Both prescription opioids and illicit opiate drugs can directly and indirectly cause internal damage, including to the kidneys. Additives in street heroin, for example, can include substances that do not readily dissolve, clogging the blood vessels leading to organs such as the kidneys and causing infection or death of small patches of organ cells, according to the National Institute on Drug Abuse.
How Opioids Can Increase Your Risk of Kidney Damage
Evidence suggests a link between opioid use and kidney disease, according to a 2017 International Journal of Molecular Sciences study. Although opioids can be used responsibly for pain control in those with kidney disease, according to the study, renal toxicity appears amid inappropriate use, such as in the following contexts:
- Higher-than-needed doses
- In the presence of other toxins
- With pre-existing dehydration
- Prostate enlargement
Chronic kidney disease could result from the method in which the opioid was administered, such as intravenously. For example, the study notes that skin-popping can result in amyloidosis, an abnormal protein build-up that can lead to organ failure, and heroin-associated kidney damage can cause end-stage renal disease.
Opioid overdose can result in acute kidney injury, the study also noted, due to the following conditions:
- Hypotension (low blood pressure)
- Rhabdomyolysis (breakdown of muscle tissue resulting in muscle fiber contents being released into the blood)
- Urinary retention
What to Know If You Have Kidney Disease and Are Taking Opioids
Opioids are sometimes prescribed to kidney patients for palliative care or following surgery. They are analgesic drugs prescribed to alleviate pain by attaching to opioid receptors in the brain and spinal cord. Examples of synthetic opioid derivatives prescribed for kidney patients include hydrocodone and oxycodone.
Because prescription opioids can be addictive, it’s crucial for patients to follow their doctor’s instructions for appropriate use. The National Kidney Foundation recommends the following tips for kidney disease patients who have been prescribed opioids:
- Communicate with your doctors and healthcare providers regularly about your medication use.
- Never take more medication than you are prescribed. If you are not getting enough pain relief, talk to your doctor.
- Do not share your medications with anyone and keep them away from children.
- Avoid drinking alcohol.
- Talk to your doctor right away if you are having any side effects such as constipation, breaking problems or if you have had issues with substance abuse in the past. Your doctor may be able to discuss alternative treatments for you or recommend methods to lessen the opioid side effects.
Link Between Dialysis Patient Opioid Use and Death
As kidney disease advances, it can lead to kidney failure and end-stage renal disease. In recent years, aggressive pain treatment for ESRD included prescription opioids. A 2017 study on opioid prescription morbidity and mortality in dialysis patients published in the Journal of the American Society of Nephrology found that patients with short-term (less than 90 days) and chronic opioid prescriptions had increased mortality, dialysis discontinuation and hospitalization. The study also found that:
- More than 60 percent of dialysis patients had at least one opioid prescription every year.
- Approximately 20 percent of patients had a chronic (90-day supply or more) opioid prescription each year, usually for hydrocodone, oxycodone, or tramadol.
- All opioid drugs associated with mortality; most associated with worsened morbidity.
The study concluded that opioid drug prescriptions for dialysis patients is associated with increased risk of death, dialysis discontinuation and hospitalization. It recommended considering efforts to treat pain effectively while decreasing opioid prescriptions.
Treatments to End Opioid Dependence Before Kidney Disease Advances
With heightened awareness on kidney health, National Kidney Month is a good time to get your kidneys checked by a doctor and consult a physician or detoxification specialist about how to get off opioids safely.
People in the early stages of kidney disease may not show symptoms, and many people don’t find out they have kidney disease until their kidneys are permanently damaged, which is why you should get tested early, according to the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases. The institute recommends asking your doctor:
- Have I been tested for kidney disease?
- How healthy are my kidneys?
- How often should I get my kidneys checked?
- What should I do to keep my kidneys healthy?
One thing you might find you can do to protect your kidney health is to stop using opioids. If you require acute pain management, talk to your doctor about your pain management options. If you do not require opioids for pain management, however, such as if you are abusing a prescription, self-medicating for other reasons, or are using illicit opiates, you could discuss your detoxification treatment options with a specialist.
Fast, Safe and Effective Rapid Detox Treatment
Rapid detox is a method of treatment to end physical opioid dependence. In this treatment conducted in a hospital, you, the patient, are sedated for a relatively short period of time while a medical doctor flushes the opioids from your system, pushing them off the opioid receptors. When you wake up, the physical dependence is reversed, the worst of the acute withdrawal has passed, and you can move on to a short recovery period and adjusting to an opioid-free life.
Similarly, non-anesthesia medical detox involves detoxification in a hospital under the supervision of a medical doctor. Both treatments ensure the safety and effectiveness of the detox process by providing medical care throughout the course of treatment.
A leader in the field of rapid detox treatment is Waismann Method®, which has been successfully performing detox treatments on thousands of patients for over 20 years. Waismann Method® enhanced its approach to rapid detox and non-anesthesia medical detox by using superior medical protocols tailored to each patient’s unique medical and emotional needs. The process begins with a comprehensive medical evaluation, including assessing organ function, so that all vitals are appropriately monitored throughout treatment. This approach, combined with the treatment center’s safety standards and unmatched level of experience, dramatically increases the likelihood of the patient successfully completing detox to become opioid free.
By reversing the physical dependence on opioids, you are then freed of that burden to follow courses of treatment for underlying causes of the drug dependence. And without having to process opioids, your kidney health — and your health in general — can improve.
Published on March 1, 2019